QRA and HAZOP of 8″ Pipeline of IOCL at Karwar Terminal, Karnataka

Karwar Bunkering Terminal of IOCL is situated near Sea Bird, Baithkol, Karwar, Uttara Kannada District in Karnataka. The Terminal was commissioned in the year 1991 and it is near to Karwar Port. The terminal is at a distance of approximately 90 km from Goa Airport and 10 km from Karwar Railway Station. The terminal receives High Flash High Speed Diesel (HFHSD), a Class C product having flashpoint greater than or equal to 65 oC but below 93 oC, through Coastal Tankers loaded from different port locations of India. Karwar Bunkering Terminal is fully Automated Terminal and all the operations are controlled from the control room of the Terminal. The system is divided into two working aspects: –

  •  Receipt of HFHSD through Coastal Tankers by 8-inch dia. 1.1 km underground Pipeline
  •  Pipeline Bunkering of HFHSD through 10-inch dia. 7.2 Km Naval jetty line to Naval Ships & Barges at Naval Jetty.

The Tanker is berthed in Karwar Port and from the port jetty product is pumped to the terminal through 8-inch dia. 1.1 Km long Jetty Pipeline. In case of extreme emergency or shortage of Coastal Tanker, product is received through Road Tank Trucks to maintain Navy’s MSL (Minimum Stock Level). Mass Flow Meter (MFM) has been provided in HFHSD receipt line inside terminal premises.


The scope of project was to carry out Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) study for 8” MS Pipeline from Karwar port to IOCL. The assessment was based on the hazards that may occur during the operations of the project according to information available.

The primary goal of this study is to assess the potential risk levels for personnel due to unintentional release of hazardous materials from loss of containment scenarios and to demonstrate that individual risks are within broadly acceptable ranges.

QRA’s objectives are as follows:

  • Hazard detection and major loss of containment (LOC) incidents
  • Calculation of physical impacts of failure case scenarios, including estimation of jet fire, flammable gas dispersion distances, and overpressure explosion distances
  • Evaluation of failure frequency
  • Estimation of potential loss of life and quantification of societal risk
  • Conduct risk assessment to check that risk can be reduced in accordance with the ALARP principle and the UK HSE risk acceptance criteria.
  • Recommend risk-reduction actions to ensure that all risks are mitigated.

As part of the QRA study, hazard scenarios were identified for the project facility and consequence analysis was carried out using DNV PHAST software version 8.4. The risk analysis was carried out using DNV SAFETI software version 8.4 to obtain risk results in the form of Location Specific Individual Risk (LSIR) contours. These risk results were assessed based on the HSE UK Risk Acceptance Criteria and The Individual and Societal Risk for the risk ranking location was found to be lie in the Acceptable region.


The scope of the project was to carry out HAZOP (Hazard & Operability) study for 8” IOCL Pipeline at Karwar Terminal, Karnataka. The study aims in managing project risk through early identification of hazards and operability problems and to reduce the probability and consequences of an incident that would have a detrimental impact to the personnel, plant, properties and environment.

The entire facility was taken as a single node. The team examines each system, or operation node, assesses potential deviations from intended operation, and studies their effects. Each cause-consequence combinations are identified and their effects are examined. Risk and challenges are then evaluated. Additional safety measures or operational procedures are recommended for reducing the likelihood of a hazardous event occurring or reducing the severity of the consequence. The entire study was conducted in PHA Pro software.

HAZOP study benefits in identifying Hazards and Operating problems due to equipment failure, Instrument malfunction etc. and  recommend changes in existing design or procedure to improve safety. The study team totally raised 5 recommendations to improve safety and operability of the facility which includes

  • P&ID to be developed for 8″ HFHSD pipeline from Karwar port to Karwar terminal
  • Process Safety Information training to be provided to the concerned operators.
  • SOP to be developed to ensure TRV upstream and downstream isolation valves to be kept lock open and training to be provided to concerned operators
  • Consider developing a preventive maintenance inspection program to monitor pipeline thickness
  • Ensure effective oil spill response plan /procedure is in place

Incorporation of all these recommendations will result in managing risks to tolerable levels.