QRA Study for Piped Natural Gas Plant & CNG Storage Area of M/s. Toyota – MCD Built Environment Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd

Project Overview

Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited (TKM), a renowned joint venture between Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), Japan, and the Kirloskar group, entrusted McD Built Environment Research Laboratory Private Limited, who in turn, engaged iFluids Engineering to assist with the project. iFluids Engineering conducted a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for the facility. Located in the Bidadi Industrial Area, Bidadi Ramanagaram District, about 35 kilometers from Bangalore city, TKM’s manufacturing plant is strategically positioned near the Bangalore Mysore State Highway. The plant is pivotal in producing high-quality passenger cars, contributing significantly to the automotive industry.

Introduction to Quantitative Risk Assessment

Risk Analysis serves as a vital management tool for assessing the safety performance of the Chemical Process Industry. Despite robust management systems such as engineering codes and reviews, recent world-scale catastrophes highlight the need for advanced quantitative methods to identify potential incidents and evaluate control strategies. The QRA study aimed to answer four fundamental questions: What can go wrong? What are the causes? What are the consequences? How likely is it?

Risk Concept

Risk is defined as a measure of potential economic loss or human injury based on the probability and magnitude of occurrence. The QRA study quantifies risks to rank them according to severity and probability. Results were categorized into Individual Risk (IR) and Societal Risk (SR).

  • Individual Risk (IR): IR represents the likelihood of fatality resulting from accidents at a plant or along transportation routes. It is expressed in relation to the distance from the activity and presented geographically. Risk contours developed can assess potential risk to the surrounding community and aid in land use planning decisions. It mainly focuses on the risk impacting a specific individual.
  • Societal Risk (SR): SR involves the summation of risk from events involving many fatalities within specific population groups. It focuses on the risk to society rather than specific individuals. SR considers the scale of incidents in terms of the number of people impacted and is expressed as cumulative risk to onsite and offsite populations.

Project Objectives

The primary goal of the QRA study was to quantitatively evaluate and assess the risks associated with process hazards at the Toyota Kirloskar Motors facilities. The assessment aimed to identify potential accidental release scenarios, analyze their likelihood and consequences, and derive recommendations to mitigate identified risks.


The QRA methodology involved:

  1. Identifying potential scenarios for accidental releases.
  2. Assessing the likelihood and consequences of these scenarios.
  3. Evaluating the Location-Specific Individual Risk (LSIR) and Individual Risk (IR) for people.
  4. Assessing Societal Risk.
  5. Providing recommendations based on the findings.

Key Findings

  1. Location-Specific Individual Risk (LSIR) and Individual Risk (IR) for People:
    1. One of the fuel tank farms in the facility was identified within the ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) region.
    1. The impact radius for various risk levels ranged up to maximum of 223 meters from the fuel tank farm under ALARP.
    1. All the other locations considered in the study were within the ACCEPTABLE region for Individual Risk Per Annum.
  • Societal Risk:
    • The societal risk for the overall population was within the ACCEPTABLE region.


To reduce the risk level from ALARP to ACCEPTABLE at the high-risk fuel tank farm, the following measure was recommended:

  1. Gas Detectors: Install adequate gas detectors and conduct an F&G Mapping Study to assess their effectiveness.

Existing Safeguards

To maintain operational safety, Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt Ltd was advised to continue adhering to the following safety measures:

  1. Safety Procedures and Training: Regular safety drills and training sessions.
  2. Equipment Upgrades: Upgrade aging or high-risk components.
  3. Safety Barriers: Implement physical safety barriers.
  4. Controlled Access: Restrict access to hazardous areas.
  5. Emergency Shutdown Systems: Ensure effective systems are installed and maintained.
  6. Fire Suppression Systems: Maintain reliable fire suppression systems.
  7. Safety Signage: Use standardized safety signage.
  8. Regular Inspections: Conduct routine inspections and maintenance.
  9. Emergency Response Plan: Develop and regularly update the plan.
  10. Community Engagement: Communicate safety procedures and emergency contacts with the local community.
  11. Risk Assessment Reviews: Periodically review and update the risk assessment.
  12. Control of Ignition Sources: Implement measures to control ignition sources.
  13. Pipeline Inspection and Corrosion Prevention: Identify critical pipelines and implement corrosion protection measures.
  14. Overfill Prevention Systems: Ensure arrangements for periodic proof testing.
  15. Earthing Arrangement: Regular inspection of the earthing arrangement.


The QRA study conducted by iFluids Engineering for McD Built Environment Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd provided Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt Ltd with a detailed risk assessment and actionable recommendations to enhance safety at their facilities. By implementing the suggested measures, Toyota Kirloskar can significantly mitigate risks and ensure a safer working environment.