- Electrical Power system studies are required for optimization, power system stability check and adequate selection of Electrical equipment and to evaluate the performance, reliability, safety and economics.
- Power system analyses consistently reviews a customer’s electrical network to supply recommendations on how to optimize its performance by rising the protection of the provision.
- This is finished by capturing the behavior of electrical network, its component, its management, protection and their response beneath completely different time frames, spanning a few seconds to many hours or maybe years of your time.
- Power system advantages the client by giving the valuable technical info once the system is beneath traditional and fault conditions and proposals on solution to power safety connected issues featured by the plant.
- The data contained in a Electrical power system study can be used to safeguard workers by estimating the level of personal protective equipment implicated and lower the damage inflicted to equipment by enhancing the fault clearing potential of protective devices.
- Power system analysis additionally provides reports which highlights the hazardous areas within the facility, helps to avoid harm and injuries with information of wherever the energy is being employed.
- The results we tend to get from Electrical power system studies can facilitate us to determine the number of safety gears required by workers in numerous elements of the plant.
What are the 3 types of power systems?
The three types of distribution system designs are as follows
- Radial Distribution System
- Loop Distribution System
- Network System
Radial Distribution System
The Radial distribution system is the most economical to build, and is commonly used in least populated areas. It has a single power source for a group of End users. A short-circuit or a power failure would interrupt power in the entire line which must be sorted out before power can be restored.
Loop Distribution System
A loop system loops across the service zone and comes back to the original place. The loop is tied to an alternate power source. Placement of switches in strategic locations, enables the utility to supply power End user from either direction.
If one of the power source fails, switches are thrown either manually or automatically, and thereby power can be fed to End user from the other source.
The loop system provides better continuity service when compared with the radial system. In the circumstance of power failures due to faults in the line, the utility has to find the fault and switch it around to put back service. The fault itself can then be put right by End user’s minimum interruptions.
The loop system is more costly than the radial as more conductors and switches are required, but the resulting enhanced system reliability is worth the price paid.
Network systems are the most complex and are referred as interlocking loop systems. A End user can be provided with two, three, four, or more different power supplies. Therefore, the biggest advantage of such a system is increased reliability. Also, it is the most expensive. Citing this reason it is widely used only in high load density and congested areas.
What are the significant parts of Power System?
The significant parts of a power system are Generators, Transformers, Transmission lines, Busses and Loads.
Generators allow for power to be generated.
Transforms one voltage level to another.
Transmits the power with the required Voltage from one location to another.
Busses & loads
Busses distribute Power among a number of transmission lines and power transformers which is later used by Customer and usually represented as loads.
What is the Purpose of Power System?
Power systems provide energy to utilities that perform a function in terms of Load. These loads varies from household devices to Industrial Equipment machineries. Usually loads expect a specific voltage and, for alternating current devices, a specific frequency and a certain number of phases which is ultimately served by the Power Systems.
Importance of Stability analysis in Power System
Power system stability incorporates the study of the dynamics of the power system under interruptions. Power system stability ensures the systems ability to resume to its stable or normal operations after been exposed to certain form of interruptions. Power system instability can be viewed as loss of synchronism when the system is exposed to a certain interruption.
The following are the three types of stability that needs to be analyzed
- Steady state Stability
- Transient state Stability
- Dynamic state Stability
Steady state Stability
Steady state stability describes the response of synchronous machine to a moderately increasing load. It is related with the determination of the upper restraint of machine loading without synchronism loss, as long as the loading is increased moderately.
Transient state Stability
Transient stability describes the response to large interruptions that may result huge variations in power angles, rotor speeds, and power transfers. Transient stability is a quick occurrence which is evident within few seconds. Power system stability is usually related with rotor stability analysis.
Dynamic state Stability
Dynamic stability describes the response to minimal interruptions that take place on the system, creating oscillations. The system is considered to be dynamically stable if theses oscillations do not reach more than certain amplitude and gets exhausted quickly. In-case if these oscillations pick up pace gradually in amplitude, obviously the system becomes dynamically unstable. The origin of such type of instability is widely an interconnection that exists amidst control systems.
Types of power system studies
Short Circuit Study
This study tells us the capability of every element in an electrical system. Here throughout this study all reasonable inputs expected is delivered to instrumentation for consideration. The results are tabulated and analyzed.
The coordination study is conducted to work out the extent of overcurrent protecting device coordination within an electrical system . A Well-engineered system can enable solely the protecting device nearest the fault to open, leaving remainder of the system undisturbed so the systems remain in service.
Arc-Flash Hazard Analysis
Arc-Flash studies analysis the results from short-circuit and coordination studies to search out the arc-flash incident energy levels. This study is conducted beneath all conditions that every modes of operation and elements could face.
Load Flow Studies
Load flow analysis could be a numerical algorithm accustomed to perceive the steady state operational characteristics of a power system network from data knowledge or bus data. Load flow Studies helps in decreasing sudden period, and it reduces operating and maintenance costs.
This study involves a mathematical technique that checks the power of a synchronous machines among an electrical system to stay in step with each other following a disturbance.
Motor Starting Study
In this study, the target is to analyze the behavior of the motor that's being started and its effect on system operations. As such, the motor terminal voltage, motor beginning current and bus voltage is aforethought.
Motor beginning studies are performed to work out the success strategy of motor beginning by maintaining the voltage at the motor terminal and in different buses within acceptable limits.
Some advantages of conducting a power system Studies.
- Reductions outage time within the plant as a result of the system style and instrumentation are changed to scale back mean time between failures and mean time to repair.
- Power Quality are considerably improved due to reduction in harmonic currents and voltages.
- Reduction in outages due to unstable generator power swings following fault clearing.
- Electrical Safety is conjointly improved as potential harmonic resonance conditions corrected and also because of identification and elimination of overvoltage and overcurrent things.
- Improved operations with islanded conditions, thanks to implementation of load shedding scheme.
- Overall key Single Line Diagram
- List of switch gear-Plant wise
- Protection single line diagram
- Previous power system studies
- Load schedules
- Protective Relay Setting sheets type
- And creation of relay
- Data sheet and Name plate Details of all Generators, transformers, VFDs and HT motors
- Complete assessed input data report of all instrumentation
- Load/power flow study
- Report on Transformer/Generator size supported Load Flow Study
- Short Circuit reports for worst Case Scenario Conditions and its associated Results
- Transient/Load Shedding report for the aforementioned worst case state of affairs for giant space distribution
- Motor starting Current Analysis
- Harmonics analysis on individual load clusters and harmonic Filter filler calculation
- Coordination Study Report including computer generated time-current characteristics Curves(TCC)
- Reliability study for major switchboards/Panels
EXTERRAN ENERGY FZE.
Power System Study for BASRAH NGL PROJECT
IOCL, Gujarat Refinery
Power system study for installation of 24/30 MVA, 33 KV/33 KV unit ratio transformers at substation 39 of Gujarat Refinery.
IOCL- HALDIA OIL REFINERY
West Bengal, India
Power system analysis through software modelling