PNGRB Guidelines: 22 Root causes for threat to pipeline integrity
What is PNGRB?
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS REGULATORY BOARD is a statutory body in India, constituted under the act of Parliament of India, namely Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.
What is PNGRB’s objective
To regulate refining, transportation, distribution, storage, marketing, supply and sale of petroleum products and natural gas.To ensure uninterrupted supply of petroleum, petroleum products and Natural Gas
Why is PNGRB rules and regulations crucial?
To improve and protect personnel, property, public and environment from pipeline accidents.Pipeline accidents and it’s severity
Pipeline accidents and it’s severity
Gasoline ( Petrol) transporting pipeline exploded in the town of Tlahuelilpan, in the Mexican state of Hidalgo.
The blast killed at least 137 people.
A massive fire broke out, following a blast in Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) from 18" size underground gas Pipeline at Nagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The blast killed about 23 people
How to eliminate the pipeline accidents?
One of the key step to eliminate the pipeline accidents is to identify the root causes, which possess a threat of pipeline integrity.
According to PNGRB guidelines, there are 22 root causes can cause potential threat to pipeline integrity.
The 22 root causes for threat to pipeline integrity is classified by Pipeline Research Committee International (PRCI), hence this classification applies quite global and not restricted to Indian Guidelines.
These 22 root causes can be seen in ASME.B31.8S – Managing System Integrity of Gas pipelines.
Time Dependent Threats
External Corrosion (happens on the surface of the pipeline)
Internal Corrosion( (happens inside the pipeline)
Stress Corrosion Cracking (growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment)
Manufacturing related defects
Defective pipe seam
Welding / Fabrication related
Defective pipe girth weld (Girth weld – welding done on the circumference of pipeline to join two pipelines)
Defective fabrication weld ( Fabrication – welding, cutting, bending and assembling of metal parts to form a specific shape)
Wrinkle bend or buckle ( buckling is deformation caused in the pipeline due to lateral tensile stress)
Time independent Threats
Third party /mechanical damage
Damage inflicted by first, second or third party (instantaneous /immediate failure)
Previously damaged pipe (delayed failure mode)
Vandalism ( deliberate destruction of public/private property)
Rat bites Electric Arching
Weather related and outside force
Weather related any damage
Heavy Rains or Floods
Root causes for threat to pipeline integrity
Unknown” - one of the causes always reported by the operator, which is the 22nd root cause.
Other threats may be applicable based upon the land pattern:
Creek Area effects
Muddy Land effects
River bed movements
These threats may lead to pipeline to scour, corrode, vibrate and get damaged.
Prevention and Mitigation actions
Pipeline failure threats could be prevented and mitigated through,
Mitigation through repair actions (For corroded area, loss of wall thickness, cracks, dents)
Mitigation through Preventive actions
Patrolling the pipelines and associated facilities
Maintenance and inspection of crossings
Proper pipeline cleaning/ pigging
Inspection of cathodic protection system
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