ifluids engineering LOGO

M/S Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) has an existing isolated storage and terminal facility at Siliguri, West Bengal for petroleum storage and distribution terminal.

The terminal involves receipt, storage and distribution of finished petroleum products such as MS, HSD, SKO, ATF Ethanol & Bio-Diesel. The MS/HSD/SKO is received from Guwahati & Bongagaon Refinery through cross country pipelines (GSPL) and Ethanol/ Bio-Diesel is received by road TT. MS/HSD/SKO/ATF is also received by railway tank wagon from Barauni Refinery/ Bongaigaon Refinery/ Haldia Refinery/ Paradeep Refinery. IOCL additionally loads MS/HSD for Terminals located at various places as per demand. Delivery of product to various customers is undertaken by Tank Lorries and supplies to New Jalpaiguri railway by pipeline. This terminal is operative since 1962 with changes made as follows:

iFluids Engineering  has been entrusted to carry out QRA, HAZOP and ERDMP for IOCL- Siliguri Terminal, West Bengal and the study covers the different components and equipment’s associated with this facility


The main intention of QRA study is to appraise the potential risk levels for personnel due to accidental release of hazardous materials from LOC scenarios of the facilities and to illustrate that the individual risks lies within the acceptable region.

The Objectives of QRA are as follows:


The objective of the HAZOP study is to oblige in managing project risk through early identification of hazards and operability problems and to reduce the anticipation and consequences of an occasion that would have injurious impact to the personnel, plant, asset and environment.


The objective of this ERDMP is to identify emergencies which can arise during normal operations of IOCL-Siliguri Terminal and recommend mitigation measures to reduce and eliminate the risk or disaster, develop plans for actions during disaster or emergencies and keep prepared responses that mobilize the necessary emergency services including responders (primary, secondary and tertiary) like Fire service, Police service, Medical service including ambulance, Government and non-governmental agencies. This also comprises post calamity recovery with aim to retain the affected area to its indigenous conditions.

Overall Layout

Terms and response:



Check list for site survey:

Analysis method using FEM

Input Required


  1. Measured Stress analysis compared to allowable stress.
  2. Risk-based analysis and Remedies.

Vehicle Impact Load Analysis:

The main objective of Vehicle Impact Load Analysis for pipeline is to ensure the object’s integrity and stability during the maximum impact acting on the surface. The dynamic loads are applied on the object surface and its material behavior will be studied precisely by using Finite Element analysis methods. Based on the material type, the relevant software application will be placed as per project requirements.

Project Brief:

Kuwait Authority for Partnership Projects, State of Kuwait, hereinafter called COMPANY, have awarded the “Umm Al Hayman Wastewater Project” of which the DBO Scope is being executed by a CONSORTIUM made up of WTE, CANAR and KCCEC., hereinafter called M/s DBO CONSORTIUM

M/s. DBO CONSORTIUM has requested M/s. NAPESCO to carry out a Vehicle Load Analysis of surrounding KOC asset and services whilst the pipelines are laid for the Wastewater Transmission System (WWTS) and Treated Sewage Effluent Transmission System (TSETS).

The new pipeline transmission system interfaces with the KOC underground asset and services at 40 locations. The heavy vehicular movement in the interface locations are envisaged by the construction team during pipeline laying activities. M/s DBO CONSORTIUM has contacted National Petroleum Services Company (K.S.C.P) for engineering support to analyze the vehicle impact on the existing KOC underground asset and services. M/s iFluids Engineering FZE provided the Engineering consultancy services to study and analyze the impact on the underground components due to this heavy Vehicular movement.

Activities involved in Vehicle Impact:

  1. Input Analysis and Data Validation.
  2. Modelling of Pipeline in STAAD PRO Software (FEM Method).
  3. Assigning of properties for the modelled pipelines and other components.
  4. Applying of Support system according to the soil parameters given.
  5. Application of loads on the Pipes with Self-weights, Seismic loads & Vehicle Load.
  6. The actual loads are compared with design loads which is calculated by using the Standard ASCE 7-16 Minimum design loads and associated criteria for buildings and other Structures.
  7. The allowable bending stress and allowable shear stress is evaluated from yield stress of pipeline material.
  8. The stress is analyzed on different depths of pipes in 40 KOC interface locations.
  9. The actual Stress value is analyzed with Pipeline’s maximum allowable stress limit.
  10. The summary of results are represented and recorded in the report format both pictorial and numerical results.

Individual location wise reports have submitted for client reference and permit validation.

iFluids Engineering has been accredited as Category “A” Environmental Consultant by National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET), Quality Council of India (QC) . We are approved Consultant to do Category “A” & Category “B” projects under Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) and State Expert Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) as per EIA notification.

iFluids Engineering accredited as Category “A” Environmental Consultant by National Accreditation Board for Education & Training (NABET), Quality Council of India (QC)
NABET symbol

iFluids Engineering can perform EIA studies and obtain environmental clearance for the following industrial sectors :

As a NABET Accredited Consultant, we have developed in-house expertise in Multi-disciplinary and Industry specific Environment services as part of statutory requirement such as:

iFluids Engineering NABET Accredited Certificate

What is NABET Accreditation ?

It is a process that verifies an organization's proficiency in providing high-quality services/products in a chosen industry. NABET, a constituent board of the QCI, created and launched a voluntary accreditation scheme in August 2007 with inputs from a range of stakeholders, including subject matter experts, regulatory bodies, consultants, etc.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) reviewed the scheme in 2009 and desired that the Scheme be updated incorporating the learning since launching of the Scheme. The Scheme was made mandatory by the MOEF through an Office Memorandum.

We are Happy to Help, Kindly Contact Us

iFluids can support you in maintaining a Safe, Reliable Facility



The objective of this project is to provide Detailed Design for:

  1. Ventilation Calculation for Deluge Skid
  2. Heater Calculation
  3. Ventilation Layout for Deluge skid


iFluids Engineering has been awarded a Detailed Design Engineering Contract, to propose a ventilation system for the Deluge skid by considering the heat load calculations of all equipment in a skid and to select a suitable ventilation design structure by performing the ventilation calculations.

Considering skid location and site conditions, the ventilation calculation and ventilation layout is prepared. Based on design assumptions from the project scope, the ventilation calculation is performed as per the relevant standards and guidelines. Based on the ventilation calculation, Exhaust air fan (Ventilation equipment used for the deluge skid) capacity is designed and proposed, as per Manufacturer Standard for the future implementations.


Size of Skid = 11 m Length X 3 m Width X 2.5 m height

Area of the Skid = 11 m x 3 m = 33 Sqm.

Minimum requirement of air flow = 2.7 M3/hr per Floor Area

So, Total air flow = 2.7 x 33 = 89.1 M3/hr = ~ 90 M3/hr

As per Manufacturer Standard, the minimum capacity of Exhaust fan is around 800 M3/hr. Hence the same has been selected.

Exhaust air Fan Capacity = 2 Nos of 800 M3/hr considered (1 Working + 1 stand by) along with Fresh air side, Fresh air Louver with Pre-filter and Motorized on/off type VCD, are considered.


Minimum Outside air temperature = -10°C = 263°K

Inside Skid temperature = 5°C = 278°K

Heater Capacity (Q) = m x Cp x ΔT


Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate x Density of air

Volume Flow rate = 800 M3/hr

Density of air = 1.225 Kg/m3

Cp = Specific Heat of air = 1.005 KJ / Kg °K

ΔT = Temperature Difference = 15 °K

Heater Capacity (Q) = m x Cp x ΔT

= 800 (M3/hr) x 1.225 (Kg/m3) x 1.005 (KJ / Kg°K) x 15 °K

= 14773.5 KJ/hr = 4.1 KJ/s = 4.1 KW = 4100 Watts

As confirmed by Client, Selected Heater Capacity is 8000 Watts (i.e 4 Nos of 2000 W)


VENTILATION FANS - Wall Mounted Propeller Fan

Wall mounted propeller exhaust fan has been considered for the deluge skid Enclosure.

Wall mounted propeller fan Shaft is made of steel, accurately ground and of ample size for the load transmitted, and does not pass through first critical speed through the full range of specified fan speeds.



Ducting was sized using equal friction method specified in ASHRAE fundamental.

Ductwork shall be constructed of galvanized sheet steel. Galvanized ductwork were designed for low velocity except where specified otherwise and were in complete conformance with the latest edition of the SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards and DW144 – Specification for sheet metal ductwork heating & ventilation Contractors Association.

The duct work was designed via equal friction method considering the head loss of 1 Pa/m. Duct work air velocities shall not exceed the following limits.

  1. Main Duct Maximum velocity: 10 m/s
  2. Branch Duct Velocity: 2.5 m/s

Duct leakage test was conducted as per DW/143 - Ductwork Leakage Testing.


High efficiency Pre filter made out of dry cleanable synthetic media with 50mm thickness shall be provided on the suction side of Fan Unit as standard equipment with the unit. The framework shall be made from environment friendly recycled paper, which is easily disposable. These filters shall have the efficiency of 90% down to 10-micron particle size. Face velocity across these filters shall not exceed 2.5 m/s.



Ventilation System shall be controlled through redundant PLC based Control panel housing all control equipment, sensors, starter-control circuits, relays to allow control of the following. The PLC backup/secondary unit shall take over automatically in the event of primary unit failure.

HVAC control Panel monitors the following parameter as minimum:


  1. Air Inlets and Outlets - such as Supply and Return air grilles, registers and diffusers.
  2. Volume Control Dampers (VCD)
  3. Motorized Dampers
  4. Louvers


Layout attached below,

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL), Belgaum in Karnataka, has an existing LPG bulk storage with 3 nos. above-ground bullets of 150 MT capacity each, and 2nos. of mounded bullets having a capacity of 1200 MT each of LPG, along with 2 Carousals, 8 Unloading bays and 4 loading bays, expanding the cylinder unloading area and loading area, to meet the growing demand of LPG bottling market.

The scope of work is to carry out QRA, HAZOP and ERDMP for IOCL- LPG Bottling Plant, Belgaum, Karnataka covering the different components and equipment’s associated with this facility.

The main purpose of QRA study is to assess the potential risk levels for personnel due to accidental release of hazardous materials from LOC scenarios of the facilities and to demonstrate that the individual risks lies within the acceptable region.

The Objectives of QRA are as follows:

The objective of the HAZOP study is to assist in managing project risk through early identification of hazards and operability problems and to reduce the probability and consequences of an incident that would have a detrimental impact to the personnel, plant, asset and environment. The objective of this ERDMP is to identify emergencies which can arise during normal operations of IOCL-LPG Bottling Plant, Belgaum and recommend mitigation measures to reduce and eliminate the risk or disaster. These include developing plans for actions during disaster or emergencies and preparing responses that mobilize the necessary emergency services including responders (primary, secondary and tertiary) like Fire service, Police service, Medical service including ambulance, Government and non-governmental agencies. This also includes post disaster recovery with aim to retain the affected area to its original conditions.

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) is a well-known and well documented study. HAZOP is used as part of a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or as a standalone analysis. The purpose of the HAZOP is to investigate how the system or plant deviate from the design intent and create risk for personnel and equipment and operability problems. HAZOP studies have been used with great success within the Chemical and Oil & Gas industry to obtain safer, more efficient and more reliable plants.

     The HAZOP concept is to review the plant in a series of meetings, during which a multidisciplinary team methodically "brainstorms" the plant design, following the structure provided by the guide words and the team leader's experience. The primary advantage of this brainstorming is that it stimulates creativity and generates ideas. This creativity results from the interaction of the team and their diverse backgrounds. Consequently, the process requires that all team members participate (quantity breeds quality in this case), and team members must refrain from criticizing each other to the point that members hesitate to suggest ideas. The team focuses on specific points of the design (called "study nodes"), one at a time. At each of these study nodes, deviations in the process parameters are examined using the guide words. The guide words are used to ensure that the design is explored in every conceivable way.

     Thus, the team must identify a fairly large number of deviations, each of which must then be considered so that their potential causes and consequences can be identified. The best time to conduct a HAZOP is when the design is fairly firm. At this point, the design is well enough defined to allow meaningful answers to the questions raised in the HAZOP process. Also, at this point it is still possible to change the design without a major cost. However, HAZOPs can be done at any stage after the design is nearly firm. For example, many older plants are upgrading their control and instrumentation systems.

The success or failure of the HAZOP depends on several factors:

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a formal and systematic risk analysis approach to quantifying the risks associated with the operation of an engineering process. A QRA is an essential tool to support the understanding of exposure of risk to employees, the environment, company assets and its reputation. A QRA also helps to make cost effective decisions and manages the risks for the entire asset lifecycle. A quantitative assessment is a risk analysis performed with a focus on numerical values of the risks present. The quantitative risk analysis allows you to determine the potential risk of a project. This can help you decide if a project is worth pursuing. It also is useful in the development of project management plans, as understanding the risks present allows you to reduce the likelihood of certain risks and to prepare for others that you cannot fully eliminate.

A typical QRA study conducted by a QRA Consultants consists of the following processes:

Receipt of petroleum products

At present IOCL Gwalior Depot receives MS/HSD/SKO by Railway Tank wagon from Mathura Refinery or any other TW loading location mostly and Ethanol by road tankers. Sometimes, it receives product through Tank Trucks also. The railway unloading siding is common for all the three companies and BPCL is railway siding coordinator and BPCL being Railway siding coordinator maintains the Railway siding in respect of all facilities including maintenance of firefighting equipment. Fire Water supplies to Railway siding is taken care rotationally by each company at the interval of one month.

Storage tanks

Details of the existing storage tanks and the new tanks proposed for facility augmentation are provided in Table. All storage tanks are placed in four Dykes details of which is enumerated below:    

Details of Storage Tanks

Dyke 1 (Existing)
T001HSD14 x 202919.32Cone roof tank
T002HSD12 x 181932.6Cone roof tank
T003HSD12 x 181925.6Cone roof tank
T004SKO14 x 202899.7Cone roof tank
T005MS14 x 202899.8IFR Tank with Dome Roof
T006MS10 x 9491.8IFR Tank with Dome Roof
T007MS10 x 9491.5IFR Tank with Dome Roof
T012MS12x9710.3IFR Tank with Dome Roof
Dyke 2 (Existing)
T013HSD20 x 144172.3Cone roof tank
T014HSD20 x 144172.8Cone roof tank
Dyke 3
T017MS16 x 121861.94IFR Tank with Dome Roof
Underground Tank
T016Ethanol3x10.570U/G Horizontal Tank
T018Ron booster2.11x6.2520U/G Horizontal Tank

Dyke 5:                                          

T015Ethanol4.12x15.9200Horizontal A/G Tank

Petroleum products receipt

All products such as; MS, HSD, SKO except Ethanol are received by Railway Tank wagon rake being placed in railway unloading siding which is located near Depot boundary. In addition to the above, Ethanol is received through tank trucks.

Petroleum products dispatch

There are two TLF gantries of 9+2 have been provided for loading of all products. It operates in general shift only. There is manifold arrangement in product pump house for loading of the products to the TLF gantries.  There are 2 no of pumps for MS, 2 no of pumps for HSD, 2 no of pumps of SKO and 3 no of pump of Ethanol.

Petroleum Products receipt

All products except Ethanol is received by Rail Tank Wagon and two no of pumps installed for each product except Ethanol in same product pump house.

GAIL (India) Ltd was acknowledged as a Central Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (Mo P & NG) in August 1984. GAIL commissioned Dabhol – Bengaluru Natural Gas Pipeline in February 2013, designed to carry a gas volume of 16 MMSCMD (Million Standard Cubic mtrs per day).

The 30.9 Km long 4" line was commissioned in the year 2019 and is being used to supply gas to M/s Goa Glass Fiber Ltd(GGFL) and M/s GNGPL. At present the cumulative consumption of gas being flown through the pipeline is approximately 30,000 SCMD. The pipeline starts from GAIL SV-04 G station. There is one SV station at chainage 15.0 Km.

Gail (India) Limited has entrusted iFluids Engineering to carry out Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) study for the Gail-SV 4G and 4” LMC Binani Natural Gas Pipeline.

The aim of quantitative risk assessment is to evaluate the risk levels for personnel due to unintentional release of hazardous materials due to loss of containment scenarios from the facilities and to analyze and exhibit that individual risks lie within the broadly acceptable regions. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential risk levels for personnel due to accidental release of hazardous materials from loss of containment scenarios and to exhibit that individual risks lies within the broadly acceptable region.

The Objectives of QRA are as follows:


Gujarat Refinery, IOCL’s 3rd largest Refinery,  is located at Koyali, Vadodara District in Gujarat, Western India. It is currently under production expansion, projected upto 18 million tonnes per year. M/s. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) had floated a tender to conduct the Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) for the Gujarat Refinery in line with OISD guidelines which has been awarded to IFLUIDS Engineering.

HAZOP Study Objective

The HAZOP study objective is to identify hazard and operability problems, to reduce the likelihood and severity of an incident in the process units, utilities & offsite facilities in the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) that pose a serious impact to the plant, personnel, properties and environment.

Methodology of HAZOP

  1. Node mark-up based on (Stream, Equipment or  Package) on the P&ID
  2. List all the intention & process parameters for that node
  3. List all deviations and disregard deviations that are not meaningful within the Node
  4. Brainstorm and list the various causes of deviation and disregard causes that are not credible
  5. Brainstorm the consequences of the deviation for all the listed credible causes
  6. Identify Safeguards already provided in the system
  7. Apply Risk Matrix based on severity & likelihood
  8. Propose recommendations wherein the safeguards are found inadequate

Scope of work:

HAZOP Study of Gujarat Refinery has been carried out in two phases, such as :

Phase 1 of HAZOP study:

The total number of P&ID’s for 41 process units assessed was approximately 1333 Nos.

Phase 2 of HAZOP Study:

The total number of P&ID’s for offsite / Tank farm assessed was approximately 150 Nos.

Process Units at Gujarat Refinery:

S. No.Process Unit   No. of P&ID
17Nitrogen unit18

Project Duration: 15 Months

In a joint venture with Renaissance, a Turkish oil and gas services company, Saipem has been awarded an onshore engineering and construction project to build three liquefaction trains with a 6.6 million tons per annum capacity each. The three production trains will be installed on concrete gravity-based structures (GBS) as well as LNG storage facilities totaling 687,000-cbm.

M/s Bellelli Engineering Impianti SrL (Bellelli) has received the sub-contract from EPC contractor to fabricate around 2000 tonnage of Structural works in 30-meter-high concrete gravity-based structures construction. In part of the Sub-Contract preparation of Shop drawing and DXF plate drawing with MTO from the existing developed Global Structure. M/s Bellelli has approached M/s iFluids Engineering for detailed structural drawing extraction from Tekla model.

Scope of Work:

Execution Methodology:


Open chat
Hello 👋.
How can we help you?
linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram