BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES (BAT)
Identification and implementation of BAT implies a balanced judgment of the benefit derived from a measure and the cost or effort of its introduction. The level of effort expended to resolve an issue, and to record the selection process, should be proportional to the scale of the challenge, the range of options available and the extent to which established good practice can be used to assist in the decision making process.
What is “BAT”?
"Best Available Techniques" means the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicates the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing the basis for emission limit values and other permit conditions designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole:
- "techniques" includes both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned;
- "available" means those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member State in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator;
- "best" means most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole. (EU’s industrial emissions directive (Ref: 3)
BAT relates to the available techniques which are best suited to preventing or minimizing emissions and impacts on the environment. It is a common requirement of environmental regulators (e.g. SEPA, EA, MECA-Oman) to ensure installations are BAT or that chosen technologies represent BAT.
The following principles should also be taken into account when you do BAT,
- Sustainable development;
- Waste hierarchy and waste form;
- The precautionary principle;
- The proximity principle.
Subject to meeting regulatory obligations, the identification and application of BAT takes into account all relevant circumstances
Few Examples of BAT Application to Process Units:
Proposed BAT for TEG-regeneration:
|New facilities||Recovery of waste gases both from the degassing tank and boiler|
|Existing facilities||Recovery is technically possible, but can have high abatement cost|
Proposed BAT for produced water treatment:
|New Installation||Recovery of waste gases both from the degassing tank CFU/traditional flotation plant and discharge caisson Reducing the pressure in the degassing tank|
|Existing Installation||Recovery is technically possible, but can have high abatement cost Reducing the pressure in the degassing tank|
Proposed BAT for dry compressor seals:
|New Installation||Internal labyrinth / no leakage from primary vent to secondary vent. Recovery of all HC barrier gases from vent openings|
|Existing Installation||Recovery is technically possible, but can have high abatement cost|
If any Significant Planned Environmental Impacts identified, BAT Assessment will be conducted. The BAT Assessment will aim at assessing the current facility design/components in order to check compliance with the Pollution Prevention and Control (PPC) principles as stipulated in relevant regulations or recognized international guidelines (e.g. EC IPPC, US EPA, IFC EHS, etc.).
In essence, as part of this assessment, the design of the various equipment, as well as disposal techniques/issues and safety issues related to handling/storage will be reviewed and checked for compliance against indicative BAT requirements furnished local regulations and applicable international guidelines
Environmental input into the design process will encompasses assurance that Best Available Techniques (BAT)/ Best Available Control Techniques (BACT) and Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) have been, or will be, incorporated into the design / operation at all stages of the project. As such, a proper design appraisal will be carried out by an experienced Consultant.
iFluids Engineering details the following easy steps for systematic BAT Analysis:
Standards / Legal Framework:
- Site Specific Requirements :- Permit Conditions, Site License Conditions, COMPANY Requirements
- National Policy & Legislation :- Environmental Act / Regulation, PPC, etc.,
- International Policy & Legislation :- OSPAR Convention, IPPC Directive, Waste Directive, Basic Safety Standards, etc.,