Fire Risk Assessment (FRA)
A fire risk assessment (FRA) involves a physical inspection of the building to determine the adequacy of the existing fire precautions and the need for any additional measures. FRA would include the following particular aspects of fire safety: Fire loss experience, Fire prevention, Storage and handling of flammable liquids and gases, Housekeeping, Means of escape, Compartmentation, Flammability of linings, Emergency escape lighting, Fire safety signs and notices, Fire detection and fire alarm systems, Fire extinguishing systems and appliances, Smoke control systems, Facilities for use by the fire and rescue service, Arrangements for management of fire safety, Fire procedures, Training and drills, Testing and maintenance & Records.
FERA (Fire & Explosion Risk Analysis)
FERA (Fire & Explosion Risk Analysis) systematically identifies all credible sources loss of containment of a hydrocarbon/combustible fluid from a process and assesses the physical consequences of each release. FERA combines the likelihood of release scenarios with the predicted consequences and develops a risk profile, thus enabling the identification of design improvements that can reduce the risks to a level that is tolerable. It is important to evaluate the risk of fire and explosion together, as potential fire and explosions are coupled—risk reduction measures taken to reduce one impact may worsen the other. FERA can be performed at concept, FEED, detailed design or the operating facility phase of the lifecycle. iFluids Engineering has a track record for working closely with design firms to provide practical solutions to challenges that arise.
Flare Radiation & Vent Gas Dispersion Study
The Flare radiation and dispersion analysis is used to determine the safe height of the flare stack and location of flare stack such that the risk due to thermal heat radiation flux, flammability and toxic hazards (H2S, SO2) occurring due to the flare gas/flue gas release from the tip of the stack are minimized at ground level. FLARESIM software is used as a tool to determine the thermal radiation heat flux under various flaring cases. DNV’s “PHAST” software is used as a tool for the dispersion modeling of flare gas (H2S) and flue gas (SO2) streams.
F&G Mapping Study
- Detect a gas leak or fire event as early as possible
- Provide visual and audible alarms locally
- Allow preventive actions to be taken at an early stage in order to reduce leakage and isolate ignition sources.
After identifying the study objectives and collection of data, dispersion modeling will be carried out using Consequence Analysis software (2D Modeling or 3D Modeling based on client requirement) on the expected leakage of hydrocarbon during normal or abnormal operations due to leakages from potential sources due to piping ruptures, and dispersion of gas based on wind conditions. Based on the analysis of the dispersion pattern, the location and the mounting height of the Fire and Gas detection system are recommended.
Fire Water Network Analysis
Firewater systems are essential to the safety of many areas within the oil, gas and petrochemicals industry. Due to the requirement to rapidly deliver large volumes of water to a specific area, high water velocities are often experienced, which in turn can lead to large surge pressures, especially on start-up. Models can be developed to consider the behavior of the system under steady and transient conditions which will be used to determine control valve settings and pump start or stop sequencing to ensure that the system may be operated safely under all conditions. iFluids Engineering will typically model events such as routine testing of firewater pumps, shutdown of firewater pumps and operation of monitors, hose reels, hydrants and deluge systems. The model output will also include the maximum forces acting on all pipe sections for stress analysis / pipe support design.
Passive fire protection (PFP)
Passive fire protection, unlike active fire protection, does not need any external activation means or input from personnel. The common PFP material used varies from mineral based, such as rock wool, to organic, resin-based – ie, intumescent coatings – and composites. The use of PFP in the oil and gas industry, particularly on offshore facilities, has many advantages. Applying PFP to structure and process equipment allows time for safe evacuation by personnel and for firefighters to tackle the fire. This is particularly crucial on offshore facilities, where escape and evacuation is more critical than on onshore facilities. Prevention is done by maintaining containment of additional process equipment and isolating the fire to a single fire area. Key structural elements must also be protected from fires to prevent loss of structural integrity, which could further exacerbate spread due to falling heavy objects or even structural collapse of the whole installation. iFluids Engineering helps its client to choose the type of Passive Fire Protection (PFP) for the protection of structural steel or process vessels in Oil & Gas or petrochemical plants. We also do optimization of PFP application which would significantly reduce both installation and maintenance costs.
Fire Load Calculation
An important factor in establishing the basis for the assessment of the fire risk pertaining to any building is the concept of “fire load” which indicates the quantity of heat liberated per unit area when a building and its contents are completely burnt. All buildings, etc. can be graded according to their fire hazard and are to be provided for with suitable fire precautions on the basis of the fire load. iFluids Engineering will do the grading of building per both fire load and fire resistance. The calculation of the fire load is the basis for determining the classification of the occupancies for the fire grading of buildings.